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On logistics and packaging design education

as the starting point of logistics, packaging design should carry out reasonable logistics education in order to make packaging design meet the requirements of reasonable logistics. Otherwise, the economic activity of implementing spatial displacement logistics will be difficult to operate smoothly, and the social commodity entities will be difficult to complete the transfer from the seller to the buyer with the help of vehicles, ships, aircraft, pipelines and other means of transportation, or cause a waste of resources. Therefore, it will be difficult to realize the value and use value of products, or increase the cost of products and reduce the profit space

Physical distribution refers to the physical flow of material materials from suppliers to demanders. It is an economic activity that creates time value and space value. It is not only a side of business flow, but also the product of the development of commodity circulation

before the world industrial revolution, the production scale of society was small, and production and marketing were integrated. Manual workshop production was often carried out in front of stores and behind factories, combining factories and stores, and production and sales were carried out according to zero level channels (i.e. production and marketing met directly). At this time, business flow and logistics have not been significantly separated. After the worldwide industrial revolution, with the expansion of social production scale and the improvement of social consumption level, the reaction of circulation to production is becoming more and more prominent, so that under special conditions, circulation plays a decisive role in production. At this time, social production and consumption are in the form of separation in space, time and demander. The separation in space shows that production and consumption are not in the same place, or even far away. As Marx and Engels pointed out in the Communist Manifesto, "the establishment of new industries makes what industries process is no longer local raw materials, but raw materials from extremely remote regions; their products are not only for domestic consumption, but also for consumption in all parts of the world." Today, with the expansion of market scope brought about by economic globalization, the distance between production and consumption is still increasing, even thousands of miles away. To connect modern production and consumption in space, we must carry out material transportation, and to connect production and consumption in time, we need to carry out material storage and storage. Therefore, commodity production and sales are separated, and sales have developed from zero level channels to multi-level and multi-channel channels. Therefore, people examine the whole process of commodity circulation from the perspective of modern scientific management and science and technology. The results show that if logistics is completely consistent with business flow, there is economic irrationality. Therefore, logistics activities (physical loading and unloading, transportation, storage, warehousing and other activities) accompanied by business flow activities (business transaction activities, business intelligence activities, etc.) came into being. At this time, the status of logistics in promoting enterprise marketing activities is also highlighted

in this way, from the perspective of logistics, the commodity packaging should also be repositioned. In this way, it is necessary to educate packaging designers about the repositioning of commodity packaging, that is to say, in modern logistics, packaging is not the continuation of the production process that we usually talked about in the past, but the end of the production process and the end of the production process. From the perspective of logistics process, packaging is the starting point of logistics. Before the formation of modern logistics concept, packaging was regarded as the end of production and an activity directly belonging to the production field. The design of packaging was mainly based on the requirements of the end of production, which was not connected with logistics, so it often could not meet the requirements of logistics. Modern logistics believes that the relationship between packaging and logistics is closer than that between packaging and production, and its significance as the starting point of logistics is greater than that as the end point of production. Therefore, packaging should be incorporated into the logistics system, and packaging designers should be educated on the new positioning of packaging

Second, the requirements of reasonable logistics on packaging

modern logistics theory believes that packaging is a general term of work that uses containers, materials and auxiliary objects to package products according to certain technical methods and give appropriate packaging marks. It serves reasonable social logistics

(I) reasonable social logistics

reasonable social tension testing machine also adopts the way of liquid crystal electronic sensor display to measure logistics, which can be understood from many aspects, mainly from dynamic and static aspects. From the dynamic analysis, reasonable social logistics refers to the rationalization of logistics system. Logistics includes various economic activities such as loading and unloading, storage, transportation, storage and so on, but it is not a simple superposition of these activities, but a system formed under the common purpose through their internal relations. When considering reasonable logistics, we must start from a systematic point of view and realize the overall optimization objectives of logistics through the best combination of logistics functions, including the objectives of short distance, short time, fresh preservation, quality assurance, timely meeting market demand and so on. This is a dynamic and reasonable logistics. From the static point of view, reasonable logistics mainly refers to the correct handling of the relationship between various costs in the logistics process, so as to minimize the total logistics cost. The minimization of total logistics cost is an important symbol of reasonable logistics from a static point of view. Traditional logistics management focuses on minimizing the cost of each individual logistics activity as much as possible, ignoring the total logistics cost and the relationship between various costs. In fact, there is an obvious inverse relationship between the various functions that constitute logistics. For example, reducing the number of warehouses can save storage costs, but on the other hand, the transportation costs will increase due to the increase of transportation distance and transportation times, which may increase the total logistics cost instead of reducing it; For another example, the use of high-speed transportation will increase the transportation cost, but due to the rapid transportation, the inventory will be reduced, and the cost of product quality and preservation will be reduced, which will save the inventory cost, storage cost and cost of quality and preservation, and ultimately lead to the reduction of the total logistics cost. For these basic theories, packaging designers should learn about them through the study of the basic theory of logistics

(II) requirements of reasonable logistics on commodity packaging

commodity packaging is a part of commodity ontology. It is better to dry the goods during transportation. The selection of transportation route, mode and tools, the transportation process of handling, loading and unloading, stacking, the speed of transportation time and the accuracy of arrival at the destination are all directly related to the commodity packaging. For logistics packaging, packaging is to facilitate transportation, convenient storage, maintain the quality of goods and ensure the safety of goods. Rationalization of logistics has the following requirements for commodity packaging:

first, standardization of packaging size

in the past, the determination of package size was mostly based on the factors of protecting content items, facilitating manual loading and unloading operations, saving packaging materials, etc., and the relevance with other logistics operations and other means of delivery was not considered much. That is to say, packaging only starts from the part, not from the perspective of integrated logistics system, with the overall rationalization of logistics as the goal. The standardization of package size is of great significance for the overall rationalization of logistics in the whole process of logistics and the reduction of product costs. The design of packaging size, for example, the design of carton size is linked with various logistics subsystems such as pallets, containers, vehicles, shelves, etc. the size design of mechanical appliances in different logistics links such as packaging, transportation, loading and unloading, storage, etc. needs to be based on common standards

as the basis for determining the package size, it is the package modulus size. The coefficient of packaging size formulated to realize the rationalization of packaged goods is called packaging modulus, and the container length determined by this specification × The combined size of the container width (some also add the height of the container) is called the packaging modulus size. The basic value of the packaging modulus size, that is, the packaging modulus is determined based on the size of the pallet (or container size) and on the premise that the pallet can efficiently carry the packaging. The standard packaging size should be consistent with the packaging module size. Only in this way can we ensure the effective connection of all links of logistics. The packaging boxes designed according to the packaging module size can be stacked on the pallet (or loaded into the container) reasonably and efficiently according to a certain stacking method

second, the packaging cost is reduced

the largest proportion of the packaging cost is the cost of packaging materials. Generally speaking, the total cost of packaging containers and auxiliary materials shall not exceed 50% of the total cost. Therefore, in the packaging design, reducing the packaging cost should start from reducing the cost of packaging materials. Therefore, it is necessary to fully investigate the price and market situation of packaging materials and reasonably organize the procurement of packaging materials. For the type of materials, the choice of materials should be on the premise of ensuring the packaging function, try to reduce the grade of materials and save material costs. The second factor affecting packaging costs is labor costs, especially in economically developed countries and regions, whose labor costs account for a high proportion of packaging costs. The way to save labor costs is to improve the mechanization of packaging operations and reduce the dependence of packaging operations on labor. Of course, mechanized packaging requires the purchase of packaging machinery, and the cost of using machinery also constitutes the packaging cost. If the saved labor cost is lower than the cost of using machinery, the packaging cost will not decrease, but will increase. Only from the perspective of packaging links and costs, the degree of mechanization needs to be comprehensively considered in combination with labor use costs. On many occasions, through the reasonable combination of machinery and labor, it can not only improve efficiency, but also save labor, so that the packaging cost can be effectively controlled

finally, to prevent excess packaging in packaging design, packaging should be designed according to the value and characteristics of content goods. For some low-value goods, it may not be economically reasonable to adopt high-grade packaging to ensure that there is no package damage. Allowing a certain degree of damage rate may also save packaging costs, which is also beneficial to saving packaging costs

third, large-scale packaging units

with the large number of trading units and the mechanization of loading and unloading in the logistics process, the trend of large-scale packaging is also increasing. Large scale packaging is conducive to the use of machinery and can improve the efficiency of loading, unloading and handling. As a package for logistics, it generally adopts collective transportation packaging. Such as integrated bags (bags), pallets and containers. Each container bag (bag) can carry 1000 ~ 1500 kg of goods, and each pallet can stack 500 ~ 2000 kg of goods; The loading capacity of a 20 foot container can reach 25m3. Fourth, packaging materials and resource saving

cartons, wooden cases, plastic containers, etc., which are widely used in packaging materials, consume a lot of natural resources. Due to the limitation of resources, coupled with the destruction of the environment caused by the development of a large number of resources, and the negative impact of packaging waste on the environment, we must take resource conservation as an important measure of reasonable packaging. The important way to realize the resource saving of packaging materials is to increase the reuse of packaging materials, strengthen the recycling of waste packaging, and reduce excess packaging. At the same time, the development and promotion of new packaging methods, reducing the use of packaging materials, and so on, are not to be ignored by packaging designers, but also our packaging education

third, the packaging major should set up logistics courses

due to the prominence of logistics in enterprise marketing activities and the role and impact of packaging on logistics, transportation packaging and commodity packaging must be included in the logistics system. Based on this, China's

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