Agricultural Mechanization: let science and technology change the fate of people in the field
"you can't imagine how many crimes we suffer. When planting garlic, we squat on the ground and bend over to artificially plant buds bit by bit. It's common to have low back pain. That's not enough. It's just the beginning of the crime from planting to harvesting." What changes the current situation of Lao sun is a "artifact" developed by Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery science
the first efficient and accurate garlic planter in China seems simple, but it has broken through the key technical problems of garlic sowing, such as single seed selection, scale bud direction control and vertical planting. The vertical rate of seed bud is more than 90%, which has been verified in Lao sun's garlic field
traditional planting and harvesting cost manpower
at a time when China's main grain crops such as rice, corn and wheat have basically realized the whole process mechanization, the farmer brothers engaged in the planting of onion, ginger and garlic, like sun Benguang, are still bent over the field, planting knives and cutting by hand, enduring the "pain of bending over". However, the magic of science and technology is to change the fate of people in the field by creating tools
at present, nearly 300 people from agricultural machinery management and extension systems, colleges and universities, scientific research institutes, relevant production enterprises, circulation enterprises, Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives and large planting households from all over the country gathered in Zhangqiu, Shandong Province to participate in the Symposium on mechanized transplanting of green onions and mechanization of the whole production process of green onions, ginger and garlic
through the meeting, the experts tried to show the outside world the role of science and technology in changing the traditional agricultural operation mode - agricultural machinery "artifact" brought to the site, including precision soil preparation machine, furrow and ridging machine, scallion transplanter, garlic planter, scallion harvester, garlic harvester, seed granulation, hole plate seedling raising machine, leaf vegetable harvester, garlic sorting machine, garlic seed splitting machine Black garlic processing machine... Feast the eyes of the large growers on siteIt is called "the king of onion" and "the king of onion". It's hard to harvest scallions. Why? Hu Yanping, senior agronomist of Zhangqiu District Bureau of agriculture in Jinan, has a deep understanding, "at present, the planting area of Zhangqiu green onion is about 100000 mu, which is famous for its characteristics of 'high, big, crisp, white and sweet', but its advantages of 'high, big and crisp' have become an obstacle to mechanized harvest, which is easy to lead to high damage rate during mechanical harvest."
"the harvest cost of Zhangqiu green onion per mu is about 900 yuan; the per capita harvest efficiency is only 0.13 mu per day. In addition, the harvest cost of ginger in Shandong is about 800 yuan per mu; the per capita harvest efficiency is 0.2 mu per day. The shortage and low efficiency of manual harvest are the spear shield of the demand for late and urgent harvest of green onion and ginger." In the eyes of Li Qingjiang, chief engineer of Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery Sciences, the only way to solve the above contradiction is to develop efficient mechanized harvesting equipment
Science and technology make great efforts to solve the "pain of bending"
less power consumption, high production efficiency, less ginger clay, and one hour harvest pendulum impact tester. Test and analysis of the two Mu "4gj-1 ginger harvester" is a "gift bag" brought to Jiang farmers by fan benrong, President of Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery sciences. It is mainly developed according to the "pain points" of the ginger industry. "It is easy to operate, flexible and does not hurt ginger."
the first efficient and accurate garlic planter developed by him and his colleagues directly changed the history of artificial planting of garlic for more than 2000 years, according to the survey results from China flame retardant society
there is no doubt that fan benrong's "gift" to the peasant brothers came at the right time
"compared with last year, this year is a bumper harvest year, but this determines that the price of garlic will not be too high. I sell it to the buyer at the price of 2.4 yuan per kilogram, and I will earn 1800 yuan per mu of land. The main reason is that the cost is too high. It's better to make some money than lose money." Sun Benguang's language revealed helplessness, "garlic needs a lot of labor from planting to harvest, storage, processing and sales. If all employees are employed, the cost per mu is as high as 2000 yuan, which is the 'big head'."
"in recent years, the labor cost of garlic production has accounted for 50% - 60% of the total production cost." According to Wu Zhaoming, President of Shandong Agricultural Machinery Association, labor cost is an obvious obstacle to the development of China's garlic industry. "Now the fields are mainly dominated by 45-50-year-old labor force. In ten years, this part of labor force will not be able to grow products with such labor intensity. So, who will grow garlic?"
the head of the scientific research team of Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery Sciences recommended researcher Shichun to calculate an account, "in the operation season, each planter operates 300 mu, and the operation cost is 150 yuan/mu; each harvester operates 500 mu, and the operation cost is 100 yuan/mu, and the machine operator can get a net income of 95000 yuan. Moreover, compared with 350 yuan/mu of manual sowing and 1000 yuan/mu of manual harvest, garlic farmers can save about 800 yuan per mu."
obviously, the right way to solve the "pain of bending over" is to hand over professional things to professional people and let science and technology work
how far is it to explore the mechanization of onion, ginger and garlic? Hou Jialin, a professor at Shandong Agricultural University, took the green onion as an example. "Planting and harvesting are two weak links. We should overcome the key common technologies as soon as possible, such as full-automatic transplanting technology of green onion, drag reduction and harmless excavation in the process of green onion harvesting, vibration shaking Technology, flexible clamping and transportation of combine harvester and other difficulties." Fan benrong also admitted that the whole process mechanization of onion, ginger and garlic is still in the exploration stage, which is difficult to develop and has many restrictive factors. "But even so, we need to solve it step by step and solve it one by one."
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